G.2 Glossary and abbreviations




Abley Transportation Consultants. A consultancy firm based in New Zealand that was commissioned to develop the New Zealand accessibility methodology.


The achievement of reaching an activity.


The ease with which activities, either economic or social, can be reached or accessed by people


Accession is an accessibility tool produced by Citilabs UK.


Accessibility index


Application programming interface. This is a source code interface that an application provides and allows a program to communicate with another program running in the same environment.

ArcGIS Desktop

The primary desktop GIS software product produced by ESRI.

ArcGIS Server

An integrated server based GIS for use with ArcGIS products.


An ESRI program that allows for the publication of maps, data and metadata over the internet. ArcIMS is no longer in production and has been replaced by ArcGIS Server.

ArcGIS Network Analyst

An extension for ArcGIS. Network Analyst allows for vector network spatial analysis to be undertaken, including routing, closest facility, service area and travel direction analysis.


A library of software components that make up the foundation of ArcGIS.


Auckland Regional Transport Authority. This has now been combined with the transport expertise and functions of eight local and regional councils to become Auckland Transport.


Automated teller machine


A model created by the company Automatica and used in the United Kingdom. It is a routing algorithm which identifies the shortest path in a network.


The ability of people to use the transportation network, eg being licensed to drive and having access to a vehicle enables people to use the road network


A calculator for public transport accessibility in London.


Central business district

Core+ activities

This is an extended version of the six activities recommended by the Social Exclusion Unit for use as the core measures for determining accessibility.

The 8 Core+ activities are:

·       doctors (general practitioners)

·       hospitals

·       supermarkets

·       convenience stores (dairies, petrol stations)

·       primary schools

·       secondary schools

·       further education

·       employment (This is the only activity considered to have a heterogeneous level of service)

The additional core activities include the consideration of primary and secondary schools as two separate measures and the inclusion of convenience stores.

Core indicators

A set of common measures designed to reflect the overall state of accessibility.


The core record system (CRS) managed by Land Information New Zealand, is the system for recoding and storing official spatial data. It is designed to assist in the digitisation of title and survey information. Terralink use a combination of CRS data and additional data sets to provide a comprehensive GIS dataset for commercial use.

Deterrence function

A function which describes how a barrier to transportation affects the number of people using that transport mode.


Department for Transport in the United Kingdom.


Derek Halden Consultancy. A consultancy firm based in the United Kingdom that was commissioned to provide a literature and modelling review of accessibility assessment in New Zealand.


Environment Canterbury, the trading name of the Canterbury Regional Council.


In a node-edge vector model, the edges are the straight lines between the intersections (nodes) on the network. The modelled traffic travels along (traverses) these edges to get from A to B.


ESRI developer network. This is an annual subscription-based program that provides software developers with the resources needed to build solutions that embed ESRI desktop and server technologies.


Environmental Systems Research Institute. A company that specialises in GIS and mapping software. ESRI produces the ArcGIS suite of products.


Geographic information system. A GIS is generally a computer system which is able to integrate, store, edit, analyse, share and display feature information that is geographically (spatially) referenced.


Global positioning system. The system of GPS satellites allow for a GPS receiver to precisely determine its location, speed, direction and time.


Geographic resources analysis support system. An open-source GIS used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphic and map processing, spatial modelling and visualisation.


Graphical user interface. A GUI is a type of user interface which allows interaction with a computer using graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements known as ‘widgets’.


Greater Wellington Regional Council


Internet map server. Mapping software designed to send maps across the internet.

Intergraph Geomedia

A type of commercial GIS software.


Integrated public transport information system. The only public journey planning software currently used in New Zealand.


An open source project that provides a javascript API for developing web-mapping interfaces using MapServer.


Land Information New Zealand. LINZ maintains and regulates Crown and private property rights and provides geographic information about New Zealand.


Long-term council community plan


A programming language for creation of additional tools and functionality for MapInfo GIS software.


A GIS software company.

MapInfo Professional

MapInfo's primary desktop GIS software product.


An open source development environment for building spatially-enabled internet applications.  It is not a full-featured GIS system, and allows for the rendering of spatial data for communication across the internet.


A mapping application server produced by MapInfo allowing for the publication of maps and data to the internet.


The brand name for the Auckland regional public transportation system.


The brand name for the Wellington regional public transportation system.


The brand name for Christchurch city's public transportation system.


The ease of moving through the various transportation networks. For example congestion on a highway often represents the level of mobility for vehicles.


An ArcGIS tool designed to provide a simple interface for creating, editing and running geoprocessing models.


Main urban area


A vector dataset of locations including both natural and cultural features provided by Critchlow Limited.

Native tab file

A MapInfo based vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features.

New Zealand Household Travel Survey (NZHTS)

An ongoing survey undertaken by the Ministry of Transport to provide data on personal travel of New Zealanders and identify trends in travel over time.


In a node-edge vector model, the nodes are the points where one edge terminates, or two or more edges meet. They can be thought of as intersections (and dead ends) on the network, where a choice has to be made as to which route (edge) to follow (traverse) next.


New Zealand Geospatial Office


New Zealand Transport Agency


Origin and destination


the availability of a land- use activity or service. For example the presence of a supermarket provides an opportunity for shopping.


Public transport accessibility levels


A high level open source programming language. It is commonly used with ArcGIS for customisation and scripting of geoprocessing tasks.


Road assessment and maintenance management. A comprehensive road asset management software tool produced by CJN Technologies Ltd.

Resource survey

A survey undertaken by Abley Transportation Engineers Limited which surveyed regional and local councils in New Zealand on GIS and transport resources.


Regional land transport programme


Regional land transport strategy


A graphical user interface produced by RouteWare to give non programmers the ability to use RouteWare graphically. It can be used by both MapInfo and ArcGIS users.


A company which specialises in shortest path algorithms, web-based applications for routing and routing for MapInfo and ArcGIS users.

Routing J Server

MapInfo's network analysis product.


An XML protocol sponsored by UK DfT to allow distributed computers to exchange real-time information about bus services.


RouteWare routing tools which are used to produce custom routing applications in ArcGIS and MapInfo.


Software development kit. This is a set of tools, methods and documentation which are used to develop applications on a software platform.

Search threshold

In order to limit processing time, a practical limit on network search distance was selected in order to perform the analysis. This was chosen as the time after which only 5% of people would make the journey to the activity (95th percentile). This maximum search time was calculated by rearranging the deterrence function equation and solving for t when the percentage was 5% (0.05).

t = - ln (0.05)  /  λ

t = time (minutes)


Social Exclusion Unit, UK


An ESRI branded vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features.


Secondary urban area


Transport for London, the local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London.


New Zealand Transport planning software developed by Gabites Porter Consultants Ltd.

Transportation mode

The network across which the journey takes place: walking, cycling, public transport (including walking) and private vehicle.


The UK nationwide standard for exchanging bus schedules and related data.


The travelling salesman problem; a routing issue concerning optimisation of a route to visit multiple locations in one journey.


[1] Core requirements of regional land transport programmes prepared by regional transport committees (Land Transport Management Act 2003, s14(a)(ii)(C)

[2] Adapted from ‘Request for proposal 50_07’

[3] The New Zealand Transport Strategy (NZTS) is a non-statutory document released by a previous government that uses a planning horizon to 2040 that has been largely superseded in the short term by subsequent policy decisions. The current government supports the overall intent of the NZTS; however, it is less relevant as a practical guide to how New Zealand is responding to the issues facing the transport sector in the immediate term. Connecting New Zealand (MoT 2011) is a more relevant non-statutory document summarising the government’s transport policy and intentions over the next decade and is informed by other government non-statutory documents that have different time horizons, including the National Infrastructure Plan that has a planning horizon of 2030.

[4] These were called the Core National Accessibility Indicators between 2004 and 2009 while the indicators evolved. Now their development has been completed they are published as Accessibility Statistics.

[5] Auckland Transport is now the council organisation responsible for the region’s transport matters.

[6] http://maps.google.com/help/maps/transit/partners/

[7] A thin client (sometimes also called a lean or slim client) is a computer or a computer program which depends heavily on some other computer (its server) to fulfil its traditional computational roles. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thin_client accessed November 2012)

[8] However, Microsoft Office Excel calculates the R[8] value of an exponential curve incorrectly (presenting the proportion of variation in ln(y) that can be explained by x instead of the proportion of variation in y that is explained by x), in some cases this will grossly overestimate or underestimate the value. All R[8] values presented in this report have been calculated correctly from first principles.

[9] For example, the λ parameters developed by the Department for Transport (DfT) from the UK National Travel Survey.

[10] This compares with a minimum of 10 minutes set in the UK accessibility indicators for any journey that involved boarding a bus.

[11] The report examines the links between social exclusion, transport and the location of services. It is particularly focused on access to those opportunities that have the most impact on life-chances, such as work, learning and healthcare.

[12] Note the example of wheelchair users would also require the development of a series of special network models which only included wheelchair accessible walking paths and accessible public transport (eg low floor buses) etc.

[13] www.transport.govt.nz/research/Pages/TravelSurvey-Method.aspx

[14] www.stats.govt.nz/statistical-methods/default.htm